John Shannon Hendrix is a Professor of Architectural History at the University of Lincoln, UK, and an Adjunct
Professor of Art and Architectural History at Roger Williams University, US. He is an American architectural and intellectual
historian who has spent his career researching and writing about mostly European precedents in architecture and philosophy,
for the purpose of suggesting alternatives to the practice of architecture and philosophy at the beginning of the twenty-first
century. He has attempted to define a theoretical approach to architecture based on philosophy, cosmology, psychoanalysis,
and historical precedents which can be applied to contemporary practice. He has attempted to establish an intellectual basis
for architecture in historiography and practice, means by which architecture can express cultural ideas and epistemologies.
He has researched and written about Egyptian, Greek, Roman, medieval, Renaissance, Baroque, early modern, modern, postmodern,
and contemporary architectures and philosophies. New technologies and methods of discourse do not necessitate a separation
from the past; the purpose of studying history is to suggest alternatives to the present. The research is based on methods
established by figures such as N. Pevsner, P. Frankl, R. Wittkower, E. Panofsky, C. Rowe, M. Tafuri, J. Lacan and J. Derrida,
and by teachers, mentors and colleagues such as S. Tigerman, P. Eisenman, C. Ingraham, M. Rakatansky, M. Linder, A. Vidler,
C. Otto, M. Carpo, H. Foster, D. LaCapra, H. White, L. Steinberg, P. Portoghesi, A. Pérez-Gómez, M. Frascari,
and D. Vesely. Collaborators have included A. Alexandrakis, L. Cheney, C. Carman, E. Danze, N. Temple, J. Lomholt, R. Quek,
and N.-I. Terzoglou.
Forthcoming: The Splendour of English Gothic Architecture, London: Parkstone, 2014.
Between Form and Function in Architecture, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2013.
Architecture as Cosmology: Lincoln Cathedral and English Gothic Architecture,
Continuing the themes
that have been addressed in The Humanities in Architectural Design and The Cultural Role of Architecture,
this book illustrates the important role that a contradiction between form and function plays in compositional strategies
in architecture. The contradiction between form and function is seen as a device for poetic expression, for the expression
of ideas, in architecture. Here the role of the terms "form" and "function" are analyzed throughout the
history of architecture and architectural theory, from Vitruvius to the present, with particular emphasis on twentieth-century
functionalism. Historical examples are given from Ancient, Classical, Islamic, Christian, Byzantine, Gothic, Renaissance,
Mannerist, and Neoclassical architecture, and from movements in the twentieth century to the present. In addition philosophical
issues such as lineamenti, Vorstellung, différance, dream construction, deep structure and surface structure, topology
theory, self-generation, and immanence are explored in relation to the compositions and writings of architects throughout
history. This book contributes to the project of re-establishing architecture as a humanistic discipline, to re-establish
an emphasis on the expression of ideas, and on the ethical role of architecture to engage the intellect of the observer and
to represent human identity.
New York: Peter Lang, 2011.
Architecture as Cosmology examines the precedents, interpretations,
and influences of the architecture of Lincoln Cathedral. The book analyzes the origin and development of the architectural
forms, which were to a great extent unprecedented and were very influential in the development of English Gothic architecture
and in conceptions of architecture to the present day. The book emphasizes the relation of the architectural forms to medieval
philosophy, focusing on the writings of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln 1235-53. The architecture is seen as a text
of the philosophy, cosmology, and theology of medieval English culture.
Robert Grosseteste: Philosophy of Intellect and Vision
focuses on two important areas in the philosophy of
Robert Grosseteste: Philosophy of Intellect and Philosophy of Vision. The project aims to contribute to the importance of
Grosseteste in the history of philosophy, and to establish groundwork for further development in these two areas of philosophy,
to contribute to contemporary philosophy. Emphasis is placed on the relation between Grosseteste's philosophies and previous
influences (classical: Plato, Aristotle, Euclid; Greek commentators on Aristotle: Alexander of Aphrodisias, Themistius; Arabic
commentators on Aristotle: Alfarabi, Avicenna, Averroes; and the Neoplatonic tradition: Plotinus, Proclus, Pseudo-Dionysius),
as well as their relation to subsequent philosophies in the middle ages, and the Renaissance to the twentieth century. The
philosophies are also considered in relation to the architecture of Lincoln Cathedral.
An analysis of the relation between the theories of psychoanalysis (the structure
of the psyche, linguistics and perception), in particular those of Jacques Lacan, and theories and compositional strategies
in architecture, focusing on the writing and projects of Peter Eisenman. There are extended discussions of the thought of
figures such as Sigmund Freud, Ferdinand de Saussure, and Jacques Derrida, and the work of architects such as Leon Battista
Alberti, Francesco Borromini, Giuseppe Terragni, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Concepts analyzed in relation to architecture
include the signifier and signified in Structural Linguistics, deep structure and surface structure, differance in
Deconstruction; latent content and manifest content in the dream work of Freud, as well as condensation and displacement,
picture thinking and image making; Lacanian concepts of the anchoring point and sliding in language, the mirror stage, ego
formation, the matrix and mechanisms of language, and primordial perception. Concepts of Eisenman for architecture which are
analyzed include apperception, scaling, decomposition, folding, blurring, the figural, the interstitial, and interiority.
Examines the aesthetics of Plotinus, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling, and Georg Wilhelm
Friedrich Hegel. Describes the Platonic bases of the aesthetics of Plotinus, and the Plotinian bases of the aesthetics
of Schelling and Hegel in the Philosophy of Spirit, Identity Philosophy (the relation between intellect and nature), and Transcendental
Idealism. The book explores the concept of art as philosophy, as a product of mind, and as an instrument of intellect in the
relation between reason and perception. Particular concepts analyzed include the dialectics of universal and particular, subjective
and objective, consciousness and self-consciousness, thought and matter in representation (Darstellung), and being-in-itself
(Ansich) and being-for-self (Fursich), as they are manifest in artistic representation.
Chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. The Symposium and the Aesthetics of
Plotinus; 3. The Aesthetics of Schelling: The Philosophy of Art; Bruno, or On the Natural and the Divine Principle
of Things; System of Transcendental Idealism; 4. Plotinian Hypostases in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit;
5. The Aesthetics of Hegel: Introductory Lectures on Aesthetics; Phenomenology of Spirit; Philosophy
of Mind; 6. Architecture and the Philosophy of Spirit
An analysis of the role that Platonic and Neoplatonic philosophical systems have played in
artistic production and the understanding of architectonic space, with chapters on Anaximander, Plato, Plotinus, Proclus,
Cusanus, Leon Battista Alberti, Piero della Francesca, Paul Cezanne, the Cubists and Deconstructivists. Interpretations of
philosophical texts, artistic treatises, and works of art and architecture in Western culture as they are related to Platonic
and Neoplatonic philosophies. Examines philosophical concepts such as the apeiron, arche, chora,
cosmos, Idea, intellectus divinus, implicato/explicato, coincidentia oppositorum,
Intellectual Principle, the Other, the heterogeneous, and deep structure, in relation to artistic concepts such as perspectiva
naturalis/artificialis, costruzione leggitima, scenographia, concinnitas, disegno,
commensuratio, harmonic proportions, transformational relationships, spacing, and dislocation.
Explores the relation between architectural forms and philosophical structures throughout
Western culture. Chapters on Egypt, Archaic Greece, Francesco Borromini, Guarino Guarini and Bernardo Vittone, Gottfried Wilhelm
Leibniz, Gianbattista Piranesi, the Gothic Romance, Jacques Lacan and Roger Caillois, Sigmund Freud and The Cabinet of
Doctor Caligari, Georges Bataille and Frederick Kiesler, and The Body in the Theory of Making. Examines such philosophical
concepts as the Ennead and the zodiac, numerology and cosmology, Hermeticism and Neoplatonism, the tetractys, circuitus
spiritualis, Celestial Hierarchies, complicato/explicato, coincidentia oppositorum, Structural
Rationalism, the sublime, the unconscious, dream images, psychophysiological space, psychasthenia, the informe, the
gaze, the libido, optical theory, and the heterogeneous, in relation to architectural design.
Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 2002.http://mellenpress.com/mellenpress.cfm?bookid=5071&pc=9
An analysis of the role that philosophies and philosophical structures which were circulating in seventeenth-century
Rome played in the designs of the Baroque architect Francesco Borromini, especially in the church of San Carlo alle Quattro
Fontane. The analysis includes a historical reconstruction of the setting of seventeenth-century Rome and an examination of
drawings and built work in relation to published diagrams and essays, which were translated by Borromini into geometries and
Chapters: 1. Renaissance Precedent:
Leon Battista Alberti; 2. The Structure of the Cosmos in the Baroque; 3. The Neoplatonic Idea at the Accademia di San Luca;
4. Syncretism and Architectural Syntax; 5. The Structuring of the Conceptual Process; 6. Athanasius Kircher and Hermeticism;
7. Esoteric Symbols of Hermetic and Neoplatonic Philosophy; 8. Light, Vision and Numerology; 9. The Transmutation of Geometries;
10. Neoplatonic Philosophy; 11. Presocratic Origins
An introductory survey of history and culture
in Italy, based on classes, lectures and tours in Italy over the course of four years. The survey includes personal experience,
and descriptions of significant figures in politics, literature, philosophy and the arts.
Chapters: 1. Giordano Bruno and Intellectual Rebellion; 2. Venice, Vicenza and Milan; 3. Paolo Portoghesi:
Borromini and Postmodernism; 4. Mythological Origins in Crete and the Peloponnese; 5. Giuseppe Mazzini and the Risorgimento;
6. Baroque Architecture in Turin; 7. Primo Levi and Post-Holocaust Identity; 8. Antonio Gramsci and Marxist Cultural Theory;
9. Vienna and the Origins of Modernism; 10. Prague: Creativity and the Subconscious; 11. Giovanni Macchia: Sensuality and
Modern Life; 12. Futurism and the Obsession with Speed; 13. Calcio and Astrology in Modern Italy; 14. Silvio Berlusconi and
Capitalist Politics; 15. Life as Spectacle; 16. Calcata: A Bohemian Alternative; 17. Franco Archibugi and the Italian Language;
18. Campo Marzio: The Heart of Rome; 19. Genoa and the French Riviera; 20. Capri and Anacapri; 21. Thomas Aquinas and the
Great Synthesis; 22. Lorenzo Valla: Philology and Textual Criticism; 23. Tommaso Campanella: Political Revolt and Utopia;
24. Giambattista Vico and the Social Sciences; 25. Benedetto Croce and the Philosophy of Spirit; 26. Archetypes for Mythology
and Christianity in Egypt; 27. Olympia: The Greek Arcadia; 28. The Art Scene in Rome; 29. The Villa Farnesina; 30. Seneca
and Stoicism; 31. Constantine and Christianity; 32. Cicero and the Art of Oration; 33. Piazza San Pietro and the Arms of the
Church; 34. Classical Philosophy in the Vatican; 35. Borromini: Humanism and Neoplatonism; 36. The Cornaro Chapel: Spiritual
and Physical Ecstasy; 37. Pompeii and the Villa of the Mysteries; 38. Plotinus: Plato and the Ennead; 39. Saint Francis of
Assisi and the Universal Spirit; 40. Siena: The Renaissance that Might Have Been; 41. Saint Augustine and the Christian Community;
42. Leon Battista Alberti and the Modern Architect; 43. The City of Florence; 44. Michelangelo: Expression and Rebellion;
45. The Platonic Academy; 46. Sandro Botticelli and Classical Mythology; 47. Pisa: Monuments to an Empire; 48. Galileo and
the Birth of Science; 49. Umberto Eco and the Importance of Semiotics; 50. Andrea Palladio and Humanist Architecture; 51.
Byzantine Mosaics in Ravenna; 52. Giuseppe Terragni: Architecture and Politics; 53. Athens and Aix-en-Provence
The Cultural Role of Architecture,
Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2012.
the ambiguities of how we define the word 'culture' in our global
society, this book identitfies its imprint
on architectural ideas. It examines
the historical role of the cultural in architectural production and expression,
looking at meaning and communication, tracing the formations of cultural
identities. Chapters written by international
academics in history, theory and philosophy of architecture, examine how different modes of representation
history have drawn profound meanings from cultural practices
and beliefs. Edited with Paul Emmons and Jane Lomholt, essays
by Nicholas Temple, Dagmar Weston, Chris Siwicki, Liana De Girolami Cheney, Noé Badillo,
Jane Lomholt, Louise Pelletier, Cristina Gonzalez-Longo, Paul Emmons, Marco Frascari, Chris Hay, Harry Charrington, Jan Frohburg,
Alexandra Stara, Gerald Adler, John Hendrix, Alberto Pérez-Gómez,
Nikolaos-Ion Terzoglou, Ashraf Salama, Jason Crow, Mark Cannata, Nader El-Bizri.
Renaissance Theories of Vision,
Farnham: Ashgate, 2010.
How are processes of vision, perception, and
sensation conceived in the Renaissance? How are those conceptions made manifest in the arts? The essays in this volume address
these and similar questions to establish important theoretical and philosophical bases for artistic production in the Renaissance
and beyond. The essays also attend to the views of historically significant writers from the classical period to the eighteenth
century, including Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, St. Augustine, Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Ibn Sahl, Marsilio
Ficino, Nicholas of Cusa, Leon Battista Alberti, Gian Paolo Lomazzo, Gregorio Comanini, John Davies, Rene Descartes, Samuel
van Hoogstraten, and George Berkeley. Contributors scrutinize and illustrate the effect of changing and evolving ideas of
intellectual and physical vision on artistic practice in Florence, Rome, Venice, England, Austria, and the Netherlands. The
artists whose works and practices are discussed include Fra Angelico, Donatello, Leonardo da Vinci, Filippino Lippi, Giovanni
Bellini, Raphael, Parmigianino, Titian, Bronzino, Johannes Gumpp, and Rembrandt van Rijn. Taken together, the essays provide
the reader with a fresh perspective on the intellectual confluence between art, science, philosophy, and literature across
Renaissance Europe. Edited with Charles H. Carman, essays by Nader El-Bizri, Charles H. Carman, Allie Terry, Amy R. Bloch,
John Hendrix, Liana De Girolami Cheney, Christian Kleinbub, Nicholas Temple, Thijs Weststeijn, Faye Tudor, Alice Crawford
Essays from a conference organized in Florence with Liana De Girolami Cheney,
examining the role of Neoplatonic aesthetics in the arts. There are chapters by contributors on Sufism, Proclus, Gioseffe
Zarlino, Platonic Forms, Plotinus, Stephen MacKenna, Iris Murdoch, Fra Angelico, Leon Battista Alberti, Sandro Botticelli,
Michelangelo, Giorgio Vasari, Denman Ross, and Postmodern theory.
Essays from a conference organized in Rome
with Liana De Girolami Cheney, examining the role that Neoplatonism has played in artistic production in Italy. There are
chapters by contributors on Georges Gemistos-Plethon, Marsilio Ficino, Plato, Michelangelo, El Greco, Francesco Borromini
and Athanasius Kircher, The Myth of Hercules, Sandro Botticelli, Dante, Giorgio Vasari, Francesco Clemente and Giovanni Macchia.
"Psychoanalysis and Identity in Architecture," in Soumyen Bandyopadhyay
Garma Montiel (eds.), The Territories of Identity: Architecture in
the Age of Evolving
Globalisation, Routledge, 2013.
“The Architecture of Lincoln Cathedral and the Institution of Justice,” in Jonathan Simon,
Nicholas Temple, and Renée Tobe (eds.), Architecture and Justice: Judicial Meanings
in the Public Realm, Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2013.
“Architecture and Dream Construction,” in Elizabeth
Danze and Stephen Sonnenberg (eds.),
Center, Vol. 17: Space and Psyche,
Austin: Center for American Architecture and Design,
“Theorizing a Contradiction
Between Form and Function in Architecture,” in Raymond Quek, ed.,
Expertise of Architecture and Its History, Prestoria: South African Journal of Art History,
Vol. 27, No. 1, 2012.
"Architecture and Intellectual
Development," Intersections of Ethos and Space, Nikolaos-Ion
ed., Thessaloniki: Epikendro Editions, 2012 (in Greek).
"The Necessity of Architecture," The Cultural Role
of Architecture, Routledge, 2012.
"Architecture as the Psyche of a Culture,"
The Cultural Role of Architecture,
in the Writings of Robert Grosseteste," Conversations
Platonic and Neoplatonic: Intellect, Soul, and Nature, Academia Verlag, 2011.
as a Function of Desire in the Renaissance," Renaissance Theories of
"Neoplatonism at the Accademia di San Luca in Rome," The Humanities
Architectural Design, Routledge, 2010.
"The Return of Allegory to Architecture," Changing Territories, New Cartographies,
ACSA Conference Proceedings, 2004.
"Architecture and the Philosophy of Spirit,"
Spirit, ACSA Conference Proceedings,
"The Neoplatonic Aesthetics of Leon Battista Alberti,"
Neoplatonic Aesthetics: Music, Literature, and the Visual Arts, Peter Lang, 2004.
"Gae Aulenti," "Leonardo Benevolo," "Vittorio Gregotti," "Pier Luigi Nervi," "Paolo
Portoghesi," Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Architecture, New York:
Borromini and Athanasius Kircher," "Francesco Clemente
and Giovanni Macchia,"
Neoplatonism and the Arts, Edwin Mellen, 2002.
"Neoplatonism in the Design
of Baroque Architecture," Neoplatonism and Western
Aesthetics, Aphrodite Alexandrakis ed., Albany: State University of New York Press,
"Symbols in the Designs of Francesco Borromini," Imaging Humanity,
John Casey ed.,
Lafayette, IN: Bordighera Press, 2001.
attraverso gerarchie neoplatoniche in San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,"
Borromini, Atti del convegno internazionale, Milano: Electa, 2000.
Philosophy and Roman Baroque Architecture," European Studies
"The Body in the Theory of Making," Triangulating the Bodies
of Architecture, ACSA
Conference Proceedings, 1996.
"Neoplatonism and English Gothic Architecture," International Society
Studies, Cardiff, 2013.
"Philosophy of Intellect in the Long Commentary on the De anima of Averroes,"
Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Fordham University, 2012.
"Intellect and the Structuring of Reality in Plotinus and Averroes," International Society
for Neoplatonic Studies, University of Cagliari, Sardinia,
"Topological Theory in Bioconstructivism," Theoretical Currents II: Architecture and Its
Geographical Horizons, University
of Lincoln, 2012.
"Alberti and Ficino," Renaissance Society of America, Washington DC, 2012.
"The Cosmology of Grosseteste and the Architecture
of Lincoln Cathedral,"
Symposium on Architecture as Cosmology: Lincoln Cathedral
Robert Grosseteste (1235-53), Lincoln Cathedral Conference Centre, 2012.
"Neoplatonism in the Liber Naturalis and Shifa: De anima or Metaphysica of
Avicenna (Ibn Sina)," Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Fordham, 2011.
"Celestial Vaults in English Gothic Architecture," Conference on Heavenly Discourses,
University of Bristol, 2011.
Battista Alberti and the Concept of Lineament," Conference on Iconology,
of Vienna, 2011.
"Neoplatonism in the Risala (De intellectu) of Alfarabi," International Society for
Neoplatonic Studies, Atlanta, 2011.
"Palimpsest," Conference on the Sketchbook, University of Lincoln, 2011.
Medieval Philosophy, Fordham University, 2010.
"Lincoln Cathedral and the Development of English Gothic Architecture,"
of English Gothic Architecture at Lincoln," University of Lincoln, 2008.
of America, Chicago, 2008.
in Design Creativity, University of Lincoln, UK, 2007.
and Language in Plotinus," Ancient and Medieval Philosophy,
Fordham University, 2007.
"Architecture and Dream Construction," Space and Mind, University
and Psychoanalysis in the Seventeenth Century," Imaginary Cities,
Penn State University,
"Neoplatonism and Perspectival Construction,"
Renaissance Society of America,
"Neoplatonism and Psychoanalysis: Plotinus and Lacan," Ancient and Medieval
Philosophy, Fordham University, 2006.
and Psychoanalysis," ACSA, Laval University, Quebec, 2006.
Bases of Hegelian Aesthetics," International Society for
Laval University, Quebec, 2006.
"Plato and Deconstruction:
The Chora and In-Between," Ancient and Medieval
Philosophy, Fordham University,
"The Symposium and the Aesthetics
of Plotinus," International Society for
Neoplatonic Studies, New Orleans, 2005.
"Piero della Francesca's Theory of Perception," Renaissance
Society of America,
University of Cambridge, UK, 2005.
"The Return of Allegory to Architecture," ACSA, Syracuse University, 2004.
"Architecture and the Philosophy of Spirit," ACSA, Judson College,
"The Plan of Borromini's San Carlo
alle Quattro Fontane," Panel on Baroque
Architecture, CUNY Graduate Center,
"The Intellectual Principle of Plotinus
and Hegelian Self-Consciousness," Ancient
and Medieval Philosophy, Fordham University,
"Platonic Architectonics: Platonic Philosophy
and Architecture," Architecture and
Philosophy, University of Leeds, UK, 2004.
"Plotinian Hypostases in Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit,"
for Neoplatonic Studies, University of Liverpool, UK, 2004.
"Anaximander and Plotinus," Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Fordham
Neoplatonic Aesthetics of Leon Battista Alberti," Neoplatonic Aesthetics,
of Fine and Liberal Arts, Florence, 2003.
and Plato," Ancient and Medieval Philosophy, Cathedral of Saint
John the Divine,
New York, 2003.
"Greek Revival Architecture
in Rhode Island," Styles in New England Architecture,
University of Massachusetts, Lowell, 2002.
Cusanus and the Transmutation of Geometries," International Society for
University of Maine, 2002.
"The Platonic Geometries
of Cezanne," Mediterranean Studies Association, Aix-
en-Provence, France, 2001.
"Plato and Natural Law," Plato and Law, University of Athens, Greece,
"Ascesa attraverso gerarchie neoplatoniche
in San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane,"
Borromini and the Baroque Universe, Rome,
"Francesco Borromini and Athanasius Kircher,"
Neoplatonism and the Arts in
Italy, American University in Rome, 2000.
"Philosophical Traditions in Contemporary Italian Painting," Neoplatonism
the Arts in Italy, American University in Rome, 2000.
"The Construction of an Ethical Rationality in Plato's Laws,"
Olympia, Greece, 1999.
"Designs of Francesco Borromini," Imaging Humanites, Loyola University
Aesthetics," Neoplatonism and Western Aesthetics, University of
"Baroque Architecture and Neoplatonic Philosophy," Renaissance Studies,
University of Miami, 1998.
"The Ethics of Transgression in Aesthetic Ideologies," Mythology and Ethics,
Cornell University, 1997.
Structures in Architecture," Architectural Theory and Practice,
of Pennsylvania, 1997.
"Psychoanalysis and Spatial
Construction," Psychoanalysis and Cultural
Studies, University of Rochester,
"Social Construction and the Unconscious,"
Transporting Cultures, Binghamton
"The Body in the Theory of Making," ACSA, Buffalo, 1996.
See Resume for education and teaching experience.